Happy Birthday may refer to:
"Happy birthday", an expression of good will offered on a person's birthday
2 Film, theatre and television
3 See also
==Music or Songs==
HAPPY BIRTHDAY SONG
"Happy Birthday to You", a traditional song also known as "Happy Birthday"
"Happy Birthday" ( Alternative song from Brazil by Nelio Guerson and Carlos Guerson )
"Happy Birthday" (Birthday Party song), by The Birthday Party)
"Happy Birthday" (The Click Five song)
"Happy Birthday" (Flipsyde song)
"Happy Birthday" (NEWS song)
"Happy Birthday" (Stevie Wonder song)
"Happy Birthday", by Altered Images
"Happy Birthday", by B'z from Monster
"Happy Birthday", by The Birthday Massacre from Nothing and Nowhere
"Happy Birthday", by Concrete Blonde from Free
"Happy Birthday", by Carly Simon from Have You Seen Me Lately
"Happy Birthday", by Loretta Lynn from Songs from My Heart
"Happy Birthday", by Sufjan Stevens from A Sun Came
"Happy Birthday", by "Weird Al" Yankovic from "Weird Al" Yankovic
Happy Birthday (Pete Townshend album)
Happy Birthday (Altered Images album)
Happy Birthday (Sharon, Lois & Bram album)
Happy Birthday! ( by Modeselektor )
Happy Birthday (The Burning Hell album), by The Burning Hell
==Film, theatre and television==
Happy Birthday (1998 film), a Russian drama written and directed by Larisa Sadilova
Happy Birthday (2001 film), a comedy featuring John Goodman
Happy Birthday (2005 film), a short film featuring Casey Donovan
Happy Birthday (2007 film), a Hong Kong film featuring Richard Ng
Happy Birthday (2007 short film), a French film co-directed by Hichem Yacoubi
Happy Birthday (2008 film), a Thai film featuring Ananda Everingham
Happy Birthday (play), a 1946 Broadway play by Anita Loos
"Happy Birthday" (CSI: Miami), an episode of CSI: Miami
Happy Birthday to You!, a book by Dr. Seuss
"Happy Birthday, Mr. President", a version of "Happy Birthday to You" sung by Marilyn Monroe for U.S. President John F. Kennedy in 1962
"The Happy Birthday Song", a song by Andrew Bird from Andrew Bird & the Mysterious Production of Eggs
Happy Birthday to You
"Happy Birthday to You", also known more simply as "Happy Birthday", is a song that is traditionally sung to celebrate the anniversary of a person's birth. According to the 1998 Guinness Book of World Records, "Happy Birthday to You" is the most recognized song in the English language, followed by "For He's a Jolly Good Fellow" and "Auld Lang Syne". The song's base lyrics have been translated into at least 18 languages. p. 17
The melody of "Happy Birthday to You" comes from the song "Good Morning to All", which was written and composed by American siblings Patty Hill and Mildred J. Hill in 1893. Patty was a kindergarten principal in Louisville, Kentucky, developing various teaching methods at what is now the Little Loomhouse; Mildred was a pianist and composer., p. 7 The sisters created "Good Morning to All" as a song that would be easy to be sung by young children., p. 14
The combination of melody and lyrics in "Happy Birthday to You" first appeared in print in 1912, and probably existed even earlier., pp. 31–32 None of these early appearances included credits or copyright notices. The Summy Company registered for copyright in 1935, crediting authors Preston Ware Orem and Mrs. R.R. Forman. In 1990, Warner Chappell purchased the company owning the copyright for $15 million, with the value of "Happy Birthday" estimated at $5 million. Based on the 1935 copyright registration, Warner claims that the United States copyright will not expire until 2030, and that unauthorized public performances of the song are technically illegal unless royalties are paid to it. In one specific instance on February 2010, these royalties were said to amount to $700. In the European Union, the copyright of the song will expire on December 31, 2016. The actual American copyright status of "Happy Birthday to You" began to draw more attention with the passage of the Copyright Term Extension Act in 1998. When the U.S. Supreme Court upheld the Act in Eldred v. Ashcroft in 2003, Associate Justice Stephen Breyer specifically mentioned "Happy Birthday to You" in his dissenting opinion. An American law professor who heavily researched the song has expressed strong doubts that it is still under copyright.
1.1 "Good Morning to All"
1.2 "Happy Birthday to You"
2 Copyright status
2.1 History of the song
3 Copyright issues and public performances
3.1 Royalty amounts sought
Lyrics "Good Morning to All" Good morning to you,
Good morning to you,
Good morning, dear children,
Good morning to all.
(Lyrics by Patty Smith Hill.)
HAPPY BIRTHDAY TO YOU
Structurally, the song consists of four lines, three of which are identical. Each of the three identical lines is precisely the title of the song: "Happy birthday to you!". The other line is "Happy birthday, dear ____," where the blank "_____" is replaced by the name of the person whose birthday is being celebrated, and serves to address the song to that person. For example, "Happy Birthday, dear Donald."
It is often the tradition that at a birthday party, the song "Happy Birthday to You" is sung with the birthday person seated in front of a table where there is a birthday cake with candles that have just been lit, with the other guests gathered around. The number of candles is often the same as the age of the birthday person. After the song is sung (usually just once), sometimes party guests will add phrase like "And many happy returns!" or "And many more!" expressing the hope that the birthday person will enjoy a long life. The birthday person is asked to make a wish ("Make a wish!") -- which is done silently -- and then blow out the candles. Traditionally, the blowing out of the candles is felt to signify that the wish will come true. Once the candles have been blown out, people often will applaud, and then the cake is usually served -- often by the birthday person -- and eaten. Often, after the cake is eaten, each guest gives a gift, usually wrapped in festive paper, to the birthday person. Often the birthday person will then open the gifts, revealing their contents to all. That usually concludes the ritual aspect of a birthday party, which then proceeds much like any other but with the birthday person being treated as the guest of honor
History of the song
The public domain song Good-Morning to All
Instrumental version of "Good Morning to All".The origins of "Happy Birthday To You" date back to the mid-nineteenth century, when two sisters, Patty and Mildred J. Hill, introduced the song "Good Morning to All" to Patty's kindergarten class in Kentucky. In 1893, they published the tune in their songbook Song Stories for the Kindergarten. However, many believe that the Hill sisters most likely copied the tune and lyrical idea from other popular and substantially similar nineteenth-century songs that predated theirs, including Horace Waters' "Happy Greetings to All", "Good Night to You All" also from 1858, "A Happy New Year to All" from 1875, and "A Happy Greeting to All", published 1885. In the EU and other countries in which copyright lasts for the life of the author(s) plus 70 years, the copyright will expire after December 31, 2016, as Patty Hill died in 1946.
The Hill Sisters' students enjoyed their teachers' version of "Good Morning To All" so much that they began spontaneously singing it at birthday parties, changing the lyrics to "Happy Birthday". Children's Praise and Worship, edited by Andrew Byers, Bessie L. Byrum and Anna E. Koglin, published the song in 1918. In 1924, Robert Coleman included "Good Morning to All" in a songbook with the birthday lyrics as a second verse. Coleman also published "Happy Birthday" in The American Hymnal in 1933.
In 1935, "Happy Birthday to You" was copyrighted as a work for hire by Preston Ware Orem for the Summy Company, the publisher of "Good Morning to All". A new company, Birch Tree Group Limited, was formed to protect and enforce the song's copyright. In 1998, the rights to "Happy Birthday to You" and its assets were sold to The Time-Warner Corporation. In March 2004, Warner Music Group was sold to a group of investors led by Edgar Bronfman Jr. The company continues to insist that one cannot sing the "Happy Birthday to You" lyrics for profit without paying royalties: in 2008, Warner collected about $5000 per day ($2 million per year) in royalties for the song., pp. 4,68 This includes use in film, television, radio, anywhere open to the public, or even among a group where a substantial number of those in attendance are not family or friends of whoever is performing the song. For this reason, most restaurants or other public party venues will not allow their employees to perform the song in public, instead opting for other original songs or cheers in honor of the birthday celebrant.
Except for the splitting of the first note in the melody "Good Morning to All" to accommodate the two syllables in the word "happy", "Happy Birthday to You" and "Good Morning to All" are melodically identical. Precedent (regarding works derived from public domain material, and cases comparing two similar musical works) seems to suggest that the melody used in "Happy Birthday to You" would not merit additional copyright status for one split note. Whether or not changing the words "good morning" to "happy birthday" should be covered by copyright is a different matter. The words "good morning" were replaced with "happy birthday" by others than the authors of "Good Morning to All". Regardless of the fact that "Happy Birthday to You" infringed upon "Good Morning to All", there is one theory that because the "Happy Birthday to You" variation was not written by the Hills, and it was published without notice of copyright under the Copyright Act of 1909, the 1935 registration is invalid.
Professor Robert Brauneis cited problems with the song's authorship and the notice and renewal of the copyright, and concluded "It is almost certainly no longer under copyright." Many question the validity of the current copyright, as the melody of the song was most likely borrowed from other popular songs of the time, and the lyrics were improvised by a group of five- and six-year-old children who never received any compensation.
In European Union (EU) countries the copyright will expire December 31, 2016, while in the United States, the song is currently set to pass in to the public domain in 2030.
Copyright issues and public performances
Royalty amounts sought
One of the most famous performances of "Happy Birthday to You" was Marilyn Monroe's rendition to U.S. President John F. Kennedy in May 1962.
The Walt Disney Company paid the copyright holder U.S. $5,000 to use the song in the birthday scene of the defunct Epcot attraction Horizons.
The documentary film The Corporation claims that Warner/Chappell charges up to U.S. $10,000 for the song to appear in a film. Because of the copyright issue, filmmakers rarely show complete singalongs of "Happy Birthday" in films, either substituting the public-domain "For He's a Jolly Good Fellow" or avoiding the song entirely. Before the song was copyrighted it was used freely, as in Bosko's Party, a Warner Brothers cartoon of 1932, where a chorus of animals sings it twice through. The entire song is performed in tribute to the title character of Batman Begins, a Warner Brothers film.
In the 1987 documentary Eyes on the Prize about the US Civil Rights Movement, there was a birthday party scene in which Dr. Martin Luther King Jr's discouragement began to lift. After its initial release, the film was unavailable for sale or broadcast for many years because of the cost of clearing many copyrights, of which "Happy Birthday to You" was one. Grants in 2005 for copyright clearances have allowed PBS to rebroadcast the film as recently as February 2008.
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Friday, November 30, 2012