Marilyn Monroe Biography
Born Norma Jeane Mortenson
June 1, 1926(1926-06-01)
Los Angeles, California, United States
DiedAugust 5, 1962 (aged 36)
Brentwood, Los Angeles, California, United States
Other name(s)Norma Jeane Baker
Norma Jeane Dougherty
Norma Jeane DiMaggio
OccupationActress, model, film producer, singer
Years active 1947 - 1962
Spouse(s)James Dougherty (m. 1942 - 1946)
Joe DiMaggio (m. 1954 - 1954)
Arthur Miller (m. 1956 - 1961)
Marilyn Monroe(June 1, 1926 - August 5, 1962), born Norma Jeane
Mortenson, but baptized Norma Jeane Baker, was an American actress, singer and
model. After spending much of her childhood in foster homes, Monroe began a
career as a model, which led to a film contract in 1946. Her early film
appearances were minor, but her performances in The Asphalt Jungle and All About
Eve (both 1950) were well received. By 1953, Monroe had progressed to leading
roles. Her "dumb blonde" persona was used to comedic effect in such films as
Gentlemen Prefer Blondes (1953), How to Marry a Millionaire (1953) and The Seven
Year Itch (1955). Limited by typecasting, Monroe studied at the Actors Studio to
broaden her range, and her dramatic performance in Bus Stop (1956) was hailed by
critics. Her production company, Marilyn Monroe Productions, released The Prince
and the Showgirl (1957), for which she received a BAFTA Award nomination, and
she received a Golden Globe Award for her performance in Some Like It Hot
The final years of Monroe's life were marked by illness, personal problems, and
a reputation for being unreliable and difficult to work with. The circumstances
of her death, from an overdose of barbiturates, have been the subject of
conjecture. Though officially classified as a "probable suicide," the
possibility of an accidental overdose, as well as the possibility of homicide,
have not been ruled out. In 1999, Monroe was ranked as the sixth greatest female
star of all time by the American Film Institute.
In the years and decades following her death, Monroe has often been cited as a
pop and cultural icon.
1 Family and early life
2.1 Modeling and early film work
2.1.1 20th Century Fox contract
2.1.2 Columbia Pictures contract
2.1.3 Other work
2.2 Career development
2.2.1 Film success
2.3 Mainstream success
2.3.1 Gentlemen Prefer Blondes
2.3.2 How to Marry a Millionaire
2.3.3 Acting ambitions
2.3.4 The Seven Year Itch
2.4 Acting career evolves
2.4.1 The Actors Studio
2.4.2 20th Century Fox return
2.4.3 Bus Stop
2.4.4 The Prince and the Showgirl
2.5 Later films
2.5.1 Some Like it Hot
2.5.2 Let's Make Love
2.5.3 The Misfits
2.5.4 Something's Got to Give
2.6 New directions
3 Death and aftermath
3.1 Administration of estate
4 Personal life
4.1 James Dougherty
4.2 Joe DiMaggio
4.3 Arthur Miller
4.4 The Kennedys
7 Awards and nominations
Family and early life
Main article: Early life of Marilyn Monroe
Monroe was born in the Los Angeles County Hospital on June 1, 1926, as Norma
Jeane Mortenson (soon after changed to Baker), the third child born to Gladys
Pearl Baker, Monroe (1902 - 1984).
Monroe's birth certificate names the father as Martin Edward Mortensen with his
residence stated as "unknown". The name Mortenson is listed as her surname on
the birth certificate, although Gladys immediately had it changed to Baker, the
surname of her first husband and which she still used. Martin's surname was
misspelled on the birth certificate leading to more confusion on who her actual
father was. Gladys Baker had married a Martin E. Mortensen in 1924, but they had
separated before Gladys' pregnancy. Several of Monroe's biographers suggest
that Gladys Baker used his name to avoid the stigma of illegitimacy.
Mortensen died at the age of 85, and Monroe's birth certificate, together with
her parents' marriage and divorce documents, were discovered. The documents
showed that Mortensen filed for divorce from Gladys on March 5, 1927, and it was
finalized on October 15, 1928.
Throughout her life, Marilyn Monroe denied that Mortensen was her father. She
said that, when she was a child, she had been shown a photograph of a man that
Gladys identified as her father, Charles Stanley Gifford. She remembered that he
had a thin mustache and somewhat resembled Clark Gable, and that she had amused
herself by pretending that Gable was her father.
Gladys was mentally unstable and financially unable to care for the young Norma
Jeane, so she placed her with foster parents Albert and Ida Bolender of
Hawthorne, California, where she lived until she was seven.
While living with the Bolenders, an unusual incident occurred. One day, Gladys
came to the Bolenders and demanded that Norma Jeane be released back into her
care. Ida knew that Gladys was unstable at the time and insisted that this
situation would not benefit Norma Jeane. Unwilling to cooperate, Gladys managed
to pull Ida into the yard while she ran inside the house, locking the door
behind her. After several minutes, Gladys walked out of the front door with one
of Albert Bolender's military duffel bags. To Ida's horror, Gladys had stuffed
the now screaming Norma Jeane inside the bag, zipped it up, and proceeded to
leave the house. Ida charged towards Gladys and the quarrel resulted in the bag
splitting open. Norma Jeane fell out and began weeping loudly as Ida grabbed her
and pulled her back inside the house, away from Gladys. This was just one of the
many bizarre exchanges between young Norma Jeane and her disturbed mother.
In 1933, Gladys bought a house and brought Norma Jeane to live with her. A few
months after moving in, however, Gladys suffered a mental breakdown, beginning a
series of mental episodes that would plague her for the rest of her life. In My
Story, Monroe recalls her mother "screaming and laughing" as she was forcibly
removed to the State Hospital in Norwalk. Norma Jeane was declared a ward of the
state, and Gladys' best friend, Grace McKee, became her guardian. It was Grace
who had told Monroe that someday she would become a movie star. Grace was
captivated by Jean Harlow, and would let Norma Jeane wear makeup and take her
out to get her hair curled. They would go to the movies together, forming the
basis for Norma Jeane's fascination with the cinema and the stars on screen.
Grace McKee married Ervin Silliman (Doc) Goddard in 1935, and nine-year-old
Norma Jeane was sent to the Los Angeles Orphans Home (later renamed Hollygrove),
and then to a succession of foster homes. During the time at Hollygrove,
several families were interested in adopting her; however, reluctance on Gladys'
part to sign adoption papers thwarted those attempts. In 1937, Grace took Norma
Jeane back to live with her, Goddard, and one of Goddard's daughters from a
previous marriage. This arrangement did not last for long, as Doc Goddard
attempted on several occasions to sexually assault her. Disturbed by this, Grace
sent her to live with her great-aunt, Olive Brunings in Compton, California.
This arrangement also did not last long, as 12-year-old Norma Jeane was
assaulted (some reports say sexually) by one of Olive's sons. Biographers and
psychologists have questioned whether at least some of Norma Jeane's later
behavior (i.e. hypersexuality, sleep disturbances, substance abuse, disturbed
interpersonal relationships), was a manifestation of the effects of childhood
sexual abuse in the context of her already problematic relationships with her
psychiatrically ill mother and subsequent caregivers. In early 1938,
Grace sent her to live with yet another one of her aunts, Ana Lower, who lived
in the Van Nuys section of Los Angeles. The time with Lower provided the young
Norma Jeane with one of the few stable periods in her life. Years later, she
would reflect fondly about the time that she spent with Lower, whom she
affectionately called "Aunt Ana." Unfortunately, by 1942, the elderly Lower
developed serious health problems, and thus Norma Jeane went back to live with
the Goddards. It was there where she met a neighbor's son, James Dougherty, and
began a relationship with him.
Her time with the Goddards would once again prove to be short. At the end of
1942, Grace and Doc decided to relocate to Virginia, where Doc had received a
lucrative job offer. The Goddards decided not to take Norma Jeane with them (the
reasoning why was never made clear); thus Grace needed to find a home for her
before they moved. An offer from a neighborhood family to adopt Norma Jeane was
proposed but Gladys still would not allow it. With few options left, Grace
approached Dougherty's mother and suggested that Jim marry her so that she would
not have to return to an orphanage or foster care. Dougherty was initially
reluctant because Norma Jeane was only sixteen years old, but he finally
relented and married her in a ceremony, arranged by Ana Lower, after graduating
from high school in June 1942. Monroe would state in her autobiography that she
did not feel like a wife; she enjoyed playing with the neighborhood children
until her husband would call her home. In 1943, with World War II raging,
Dougherty enlisted in the Merchant Marine and was shipped out to the Pacific.
Frightened that he might not come back alive, Norma Jeane begged him to try and
get her pregnant before he left. Dougherty disagreed, feeling that she was too
young to have a baby, but he promised that they would revisit the subject when
he returned home. After he shipped out, Norma Jeane moved in with Dougherty's
Modeling and early film work
Mrs. Norma Jeane Dougherty, Yank Magazine, 1945While Dougherty was in the
Merchant Marine, Norma Jeane found employment in the Radioplane Munitions
Factory. She sprayed airplane parts with fire retardant and inspected
parachutes. During this time, Army photographer David Conover snapped a
photograph of her for a Yank magazine article. He encouraged her to apply to The
Blue Book Modeling Agency. She signed with the agency and began researching the
work of Jean Harlow and Lana Turner. She was told that they were looking for
models with lighter hair, so Norma Jeane bleached her brunette hair to a golden
Norma Jeane Dougherty became one of Blue Book's most successful models,
appearing on dozens of magazine covers. Jim Dougherty was oblivious of his
wife's new job and only became aware of it when he discovered a shipmate of his
admiring a photo of a sexy model in a magazine who turned out to be Norma Jeane.
Dougherty wrote her several letters telling her that once he returned from
service, she would have to give up her modeling. A dissatisfied Norma Jeane, who
now saw the possibilities of a modeling and acting career, decided then to
divorce Dougherty. The marriage ended when he returned from overseas in 1946.
20th Century Fox contract
Her successful modeling career brought her to the attention of Ben Lyon, a 20th
Century Fox executive, who arranged a screen test for her. Lyon was impressed
and commented, "It's Jean Harlow all over again." She was offered a standard
six-month contract with a starting salary of $125 per week. Lyon did not like
her name and chose "Carole Lind" as a stagename, after Carole Lombard and Jenny
Lind, but he soon decided it was not an appropriate choice. Norma Jeane was
invited to spend the weekend with Lyon and his wife Bebe Daniels at their home.
It was there that they decided to find her a new name. Following her idol Jean
Harlow, Norma Jeane decided to choose her mother's maiden name of Monroe.
Several variations such as Norma Jeane Monroe and Norma Monroe were tried and
initially "Jeane Monroe" was chosen. Eventually Lyon decided that he wanted her
to have a new name as there were many actresses with the name Jean, or a
variation of it such as Jean Peters, Gene Tierney, Jeanne Crain, and Jean
Arthur. Wanting a more alliterative sounding name, Lyon suggested "Marilyn,"
commenting that she reminded him of Marilyn Miller, the sexy 1920's Broadway
actress. Norma Jeane was initially hesitant due to the fact that Marilyn was the
contraction of the name Mary Lynn, a name she did not like. Lyon, however, felt
that the name "Marilyn Monroe" was sexy, had a "nice flow," and would be "lucky"
due to the double "M" and thus Norma Jeane Baker took the name Marilyn
She appeared in Scudda Hoo! Scudda Hay! and Dangerous Years (both 1947), but
when her contract was not renewed, she returned to modeling. She attempted to
find opportunities for film work, and while unemployed, she posed for nude
photographs. That year, she was also crowned the first "Miss California
Artichoke Queen" at the annual artichoke festival in Castroville.
Columbia Pictures contract
In 1948, Monroe signed a six-month contract with Columbia Pictures and was
introduced to the studio's head drama coach Natasha Lytess, who became her
acting coach for several years. She starred in the low-budget musical Ladies
of the Chorus, but the film was not a success, and her contract was not
renewed. During her short stint at Columbia, studio head Harry Cohn softened
her appearance somewhat by correcting a slight overbite she had. In addition, he
had her golden brownish-blonde hair lightened to platinum blonde.
in The Asphalt Jungle (1950)She had a small role in the Marx Brothers film Love
Happy (1949). She impressed the producers, who sent her to New York to feature
in the film's promotional campaign. Love Happy brought Monroe to the
attention of the talent agent, Johnny Hyde, who agreed to represent her. He
arranged for her to audition for John Huston, who cast her in the drama The
Asphalt Jungle as the young mistress of an aging criminal. Her performance
brought strong reviews, and was seen by the writer and director, Joseph
Mankiewicz. He accepted Hyde's suggestion of Monroe for a small comedic role in
All About Eve as Miss Caswell, an aspiring actress, described by another
character as a student of "The Copacabana School of Dramatic Art". Mankiewicz
later commented that he had seen an innocence in her that he found appealing,
and that this had confirmed his belief in her suitability for the role.
Following Monroe's success in these roles, Hyde negotiated a seven-year contract
for her with 20th Century Fox, shortly before his death in December 1950. It
was at some time during this 1949 - 50 period that Hyde arranged for her to have a
slight bump of cartilage removed from her somewhat bulbous nose which further
softened her appearance and accounts for the slight variation in look she had in
films after 1950.
Monroe enrolled at UCLA in 1951 where she studied literature and art
appreciation, and appeared in several minor films playing opposite such
long-established performers as Mickey Rooney, Constance Bennett, June Allyson,
Dick Powell and Claudette Colbert. In March 1951, she appeared as a
presenter at the 23rd Academy Awards ceremony.
In 1952, Monroe appeared on the cover of Look magazine wearing a Georgia Tech
sweater as part of an article celebrating female enrollment to the school's main
In the early 1950s, Monroe and Gregg Palmer both unsuccessfully auditioned for
roles as Daisy Mae and Abner in a proposed Li'l Abner television series based on
the Al Capp comic strip, but the effort never materialized.
First issue of PlayboyIn March 1952, Monroe faced a possible scandal when one of
her nude photos from a 1949 session with photographer Tom Kelley was featured in
a calendar. The press speculated about the identity of the anonymous model and
commented that she closely resembled Monroe. As the studio discussed how to deal
with the problem, Monroe suggested that she should simply admit that she had
posed for the photograph but that she should emphasize that she had done so only
because she had no money to pay her rent. She gave an interview in which she
discussed the circumstances that led to her posing for the photographs, and the
resulting publicity elicited a degree of sympathy for her plight as a struggling
She made her first appearance on the cover of Life magazine in April 1952, where
she was described as "The Talk of Hollywood". Stories of her childhood and
upbringing portrayed her in a sympathetic light: a cover story for the May 1952
edition of True Experiences magazine showed a smiling and wholesome Monroe
beside a caption that read, "Do I look happy? I should â€” for I was a child
nobody wanted. A lonely girl with a dream who awakened to find that dream come
true. I am Marilyn Monroe. Read my Cinderella story." It was also during
this time that she began dating baseball player Joe DiMaggio. A photograph of
DiMaggio visiting Monroe at the 20th Century Fox studio was printed in
newspapers throughout the United States, and reports of a developing romance
between them generated further interest in Monroe.
with Keith Andes in Clash by Night (1952)Over the following months, four films
in which Monroe featured were released. She had been lent to RKO Studios to
appear in a supporting role in Clash by Night, a Barbara Stanwyck drama,
directed by Fritz Lang. Released in June 1952, the film was popular with
audiences, with much of its success credited to curiosity about Monroe, who
received generally favorable reviews from critics.
This was followed by two films released in July, the comedy We're Not Married,
and the drama Don't Bother to Knock. We're Not Married featured Monroe as a
beauty pageant contestant. Variety described the film as "lightweight". Its
reviewer commented that Monroe was featured to full advantage in a bathing suit,
and that some of her scenes suggested a degree of exploitation. In Don't
Bother to Knock she played the starring role of a babysitter who threatens
to attack the child in her care. The downbeat melodrama was poorly reviewed,
although Monroe commented that it contained some of her strongest dramatic
acting. Monkey Business, a comedy directed by Howard Hawks starring Cary
Grant and Ginger Rogers, was released in September. It achieved good ticket
sales despite weak reviews. In O. Henry's Full House for 20th Century Fox,
released in August 1952, Monroe had a single one-minute scene with Charles
Laughton yet received top billing alongside him and the film's other stars,
including Anne Baxter, Farley Granger, Jean Peters and Richard Widmark.
As Rose in NiagaraDarryl F. Zanuck considered that Monroe's film potential was
worth developing and cast her in Niagara, as a femme fatale scheming to murder
her husband, played by Joseph Cotten. During filming, Monroe's make-up
artist Whitey Snyder noticed her stage fright (that would ultimately mark her
behavior on film sets throughout her career); the director assigned him to spend
hours gently coaxing and comforting Monroe as she prepared to film her
Much of the critical commentary following the release of the film focused on
Monroe's overtly sexual performance, and a scene which shows Monroe (from
the back) making a long walk toward Niagara Falls received frequent note in
reviews. After seeing the film, Constance Bennett reportedly quipped,
"There's a broad with her future behind her." Whitey Snyder also commented
that it was during preparation for this film, after much experimentation, that
Monroe achieved "the look, and we used that look for several pictures in a row
... the look was established."
While the film was a success, and Monroe's performance had positive reviews, her
conduct at promotional events sometimes drew negative comments. Her appearance
at the Photoplay awards dinner in a skin-tight gold lamÃ© dress was criticized.
Louella Parsons' newspaper column quoted Joan Crawford discussing Monroe's
"vulgarity" and describing her behavior as "unbecoming an actress and a
lady". Monroe had previously received criticism for wearing a dress with a
neckline cut almost to her navel when she acted as Grand Marshall at the Miss
America Parade in September 1952. A photograph from this event was used on
the cover of the first issue of Playboy in December 1953, with a nude photograph
of Monroe, taken in 1949, inside the magazine.
Gentlemen Prefer Blondes
Performing "Diamonds Are a Girl's Best Friend" in Gentlemen Prefer Blondes
(1953)Her next film was Gentlemen Prefer Blondes (1953) co-starring Jane Russell
and directed by Howard Hawks. Her role as Lorelei Lee, a gold-digging showgirl,
required her to act, sing, and dance. The two stars became friends, with Russell
describing Monroe as "very shy and very sweet and far more intelligent than
people gave her credit for". She later recalled that Monroe showed her
dedication by rehearsing her dance routines each evening after most of the crew
had left, but she arrived habitually late on set for filming. Realizing that
Monroe remained in her dressing room due to stage fright, and that Hawks was
growing impatient with her tardiness, Russell started escorting her to the
At the Los Angeles premiere of the film, Monroe and Russell pressed their hand-
and footprints in the cement in the forecourt of Grauman's Chinese Theatre.
Monroe received positive reviews and the film grossed more than double its
production costs. Her rendition of "Diamonds Are a Girl's Best Friend"
became associated with her. Gentlemen Prefer Blondes also marked one of the
earliest films in which William Travilla dressed Monroe. Travilla dressed Monroe
in eight of her films including Bus Stop, Don't Bother to Knock, How to Marry a
Millionaire, River of No Return, There's No Business Like Show Business, Monkey
Business, and The Seven Year Itch.
How to Marry a Millionaire
How to Marry a Millionaire was a comedy about three models scheming to attract a
wealthy husband. The film teamed Monroe with Betty Grable and Lauren Bacall, and
was directed by Jean Negulesco. The producer and scriptwriter, Nunnally
Johnson, said that it was the first film in which audiences "liked Marilyn for
herself she diagnosed the reason very shrewdly. She said that it was
the only picture she'd been in, in which she had a measure of modesty... about
her own attractiveness."
Monroe's films of this period established her "dumb blonde" persona and
contributed to her popularity. In 1953 and 1954, she was listed in the annual
"Quigley Poll of the Top Ten Money Making Stars", which was compiled from the
votes of movie exhibitors throughout the United States for the stars that had
generated the most revenue in their theaters over the previous year.
Marilyn Monroe and Jane Russell putting signatures, hand and foot prints in
cement at Grauman's Chinese Theater on June 27, 1953During this time, Monroe
discussed her acting ambitions, telling the New York Times "I want to grow and
develop and play serious dramatic parts. My dramatic coach, Natasha Lytess,
tells everybody that I have a great soul, but so far nobody's interested in
it." She saw a possibility in 20th Century Fox's upcoming film, The
Egyptian, but was rebuffed by Darryl F. Zanuck who refused to screen test
Instead, she was assigned to the western River of No Return, opposite Robert
Mitchum. Director Otto Preminger resented Monroe's reliance on Natasha Lytess,
who coached Monroe and announced her verdict at the end of each scene.
Eventually Monroe refused to speak to Preminger, and Mitchum had to mediate.
Of the finished product, she commented, "I think I deserve a better deal than a
grade Z cowboy movie in which the acting finished second to the scenery and the
CinemaScope process." In late 1953 Monroe was scheduled to begin filming The
Girl in Pink Tights with Frank Sinatra. When she failed to appear for work, 20th
Century Fox suspended her.
Marilyn Monroe, appearing with the USO, poses for soldiers in Korea after a
performance at the 3rd U.S. Inf. Div. area, February 17, 1954.She and Joe
DiMaggio were married in San Francisco on January 14, 1954. They travelled to
Japan soon after, combining a honeymoon with a business trip previously arranged
by DiMaggio. For two weeks she took a secondary role to DiMaggio as he conducted
his business, telling a reporter, "Marriage is my main career from now on."
Monroe then travelled alone to Korea where she performed for 13,000 American
Marines over a three-day period. She later commented that the experience had
helped her overcome a fear of performing in front of large crowds.
Returning to Hollywood in March 1954, Monroe settled her disagreement with 20th
Century Fox and appeared in the musical There's No Business Like Show Business.
The film failed to recover its production costs and was poorly received. Ed
Sullivan described Monroe's performance of the song "Heat Wave" as "one of the
most flagrant violations of good taste" he had witnessed. Time magazine
compared her unfavorably to co-star Ethel Merman, while Bosley Crowther for The
New York Times said that Mitzi Gaynor had surpassed Monroe's "embarrassing to
behold" performance. The reviews echoed Monroe's opinion of the film. She
had made it reluctantly, on the assurance that she would be given the starring
role in the film adaptation of the Broadway hit The Seven Year Itch.
The Seven Year Itch
in The Seven Year Itch (1955)In September 1954, Monroe filmed one of the key
scenes for The Seven Year Itch in New York City. In it, she stands with her
co-star, Tom Ewell, while the air from a subway grating blows her skirt up. A
large crowd watched as director Billy Wilder ordered the scene to be refilmed
many times. Among the crowd was Joe DiMaggio, who was reported to have been
infuriated by the spectacle. After a quarrel, witnessed by journalist Walter
Winchell, the couple returned to California where they avoided the press for two
weeks, until Monroe announced that they had separated. Their divorce was
granted in November 1954. The filming was completed in early 1955, and after
refusing what she considered to be inferior parts in The Girl in the Red Velvet
Swing and How to Be Very, Very Popular, Monroe decided to leave Hollywood on the
advice of Milton Greene.
Acting career evolves
Milton Greene had first met Monroe in 1953 when he was assigned to photograph
her for Look magazine. While many photographers tried to emphasize her sexy
image, Greene presented her in more modest poses, and she was pleased with his
work. As a friendship developed between them, she confided in him her
frustration with her 20th Century Fox contract and the roles she was offered.
Her salary for Gentlemen Prefer Blondes amounted to $18,000, while freelancer
Jane Russell was paid more than $100,000. Greene agreed that she could earn
more by breaking away from 20th Century Fox. He gave up his job in 1954,
mortgaged his home to finance Monroe, and allowed her to live with his family as
they determined the future course of her career.
On April 8, 1955, veteran journalist Edward R. Murrow interviewed Greene and his
wife Amy, as well as Monroe, at the Greene's home in Connecticut on a live
telecast of the CBS program Person to Person. The kinescope of the telecast has
been released on home video.
The Actors Studio
Truman Capote introduced Monroe to Constance Collier, who gave her acting
lessons. She felt that Monroe was not suited to stage acting, but possessed a
"lovely talent" that was "so fragile and subtle, it can only be caught by the
camera". After only a few weeks of lessons, Collier died. Monroe had met
Paula Strasberg and her daughter Susan on the set of There's No Business Like
Show Business, and had previously said that she would like to study with Lee
Strasberg at the Actors Studio. In March 1955, Monroe met with Cheryl Crawford,
one of the founders of the Actors Studio, and convinced her to introduce her to
Lee Strasberg, who interviewed her the following day and agreed to accept her as
In May 1955, Monroe started dating playwright Arthur Miller; they had met in
Hollywood in 1950 and when Miller discovered she was in New York, he arranged
for a mutual friend to reintroduce them. On June 1, 1955, Monroe's birthday,
Joe DiMaggio accompanied Monroe to the premiere of The Seven Year Itch in New
York City. He later hosted a birthday party for her, but the evening ended with
a public quarrel, and Monroe left the party without him. A lengthy period of
Throughout 1955, Monroe studied with the Actors Studio, and found that one of
her biggest obstacles was her severe stage fright. She was befriended by the
actors Kevin McCarthy and Eli Wallach who each recalled her as studious and
sincere in her approach to her studies, and noted that she tried to avoid
attention by sitting quietly in the back of the class. When Strasberg felt
Monroe was ready to give a performance in front of her peers, Monroe and Maureen
Stapleton chose the opening scene from Eugene O'Neill's Anna Christie, and
although she had faltered during each rehearsal, she was able to complete the
performance without forgetting her lines. Kim Stanley later recalled that
students were discouraged from applauding, but that Monroe's performance had
resulted in spontaneous applause from the audience. While Monroe was a
student, Lee Strasberg commented, "I have worked with hundreds and hundreds of
actors and actresses, and there are only two that stand out way above the rest.
Number one is Marlon Brando, and the second is Marilyn Monroe."
20th Century Fox return
The Seven Year Itch was released and became a success, earning an estimated $8
million. Monroe received positive reviews for her performance and was in a
strong position to negotiate with 20th Century Fox. On New Year's Eve 1955,
they signed a new contract which required Monroe to make four films over a
seven-year period. The newly formed Marilyn Monroe Productions would be paid
$100,000 plus a share of profits for each film. In addition to being able to
work for other studios, Monroe had the right to reject any script, director or
cinematographer she did not approve of.
Monroe's dramatic performance as Charie in Bus Stop, a saloon singer with little
talent, marked a departure from her earlier comedies.The first film to be made
under the contract and production company was Bus Stop directed by Joshua Logan.
Logan had studied under Konstantin Stanislavsky, approved of method acting, and
was supportive of Monroe. Monroe severed contact with her drama coach,
Natasha Lytess, replacing her with Paula Strasberg, who became a constant
presence during the filming of Monroe's subsequent films.
In Bus Stop, Monroe played Charie, a saloon singer with little talent who falls
in love with a cowboy. Her costumes, make-up and hair reflected a character who
lacked sophistication, and Monroe provided deliberately mediocre singing and
dancing. Bosley Crowther of The New York Times proclaimed: "Hold on to your
chairs, everybody, and get set for a rattling surprise. Marilyn Monroe has
finally proved herself an actress." In his autobiography, Movie Stars, Real
People and Me, director Logan wrote: "I found Marilyn to be one of the great
talents of all time... she struck me as being a much brighter person than I had
ever imagined, and I think that was the first time I learned that intelligence
and, yes, brilliance have nothing to do with education." Logan championed Monroe
for an Academy Award nomination and complimented her professionalism until the
end of his life. Though not nominated for an Academy Award, she received
a Golden Globe nomination.
During this time, the relationship between Monroe and Miller had developed, and
although the couple were able to maintain their privacy for almost a year, the
press began to write about them as a couple, often referred to as "The
Egghead and The Hourglass". The reports of their romance were soon overtaken
by news that Miller had been called to testify before the House Un-American
Activities Committee to explain his supposed communist affiliations. Called upon
to identify communists he was acquainted with, Miller refused and was charged
with contempt of Congress. He was acquitted on appeal. During the
investigation, Monroe was urged by film executives to abandon Miller, rather
than risk her career but she refused, later branding them as "born cowards".
The press began to discuss an impending marriage, but Monroe and Miller refused
to confirm the rumor. In June 1956, a reporter was following them by car, and as
they attempted to elude him, the reporter's car crashed, killing a female
passenger. Monroe became hysterical upon hearing the news, and their engagement
was announced, partly in the expectation that it would reduce the excessive
media interest they were being subjected to. They were married on June 29,
The Prince and the Showgirl
In The Prince and the Showgirl (1957), Monroe co-starred with Laurence Olivier,
who also directed the film.Bus Stop was followed by The Prince and the Showgirl
directed by Laurence Olivier, who also co-starred. Prior to filming, Olivier
praised Monroe as "a brilliant comedienne, which to me means she is also an
extremely skilled actress". During filming in England he resented Monroe's
dependence on her drama coach, Paula Strasberg, regarding Strasberg as a fraud
whose only talent was the ability to "butter Marilyn up". He recalled his
attempts at explaining a scene to Monroe, only to hear Strasberg interject,
"Honey” just think of Coca-Cola and Frank Sinatra."
Despite Monroe and Olivier clashing, Olivier later commented that in the film
"Marilyn was quite wonderful, the best of all." Monroe's performance was
hailed by critics, especially in Europe, where she won the David di Donatello,
the Italian equivalent of the Academy Award, as well as the French Crystal Star
Award. She was also nominated for a BAFTA.
It was more than a year before Monroe began her next film. During her hiatus,
she summered with Miller in Amagansett, Long Island. She suffered a miscarriage
on August 1, 1957.
Some Like it Hot
In Some Like It Hot (1959)With Miller's encouragement she returned to Hollywood
in August 1958 to star in Some Like it Hot. The film was directed by Billy
Wilder and co-starred Jack Lemmon and Tony Curtis. Wilder had experienced
Monroe's tardiness, stage fright, and inability to remember lines during
production of The Seven Year Itch. However her behavior was now more hostile,
and was marked by refusals to participate in filming and occasional outbursts of
profanity. Monroe consistently refused to take direction from Wilder, or
insisted on numerous retakes of simple scenes until she was satisfied. She
developed a rapport with Lemmon, but she disliked Curtis after hearing that he
had described their love scenes as "like kissing Hitler". Curtis later
stated that the comment was intended as a joke. During filming, Monroe
discovered that she was pregnant. She suffered another miscarriage in December
1958, as filming was completed.
Some Like it Hot became a resounding success, and was nominated for six Academy
Awards. Monroe was acclaimed for her performance and won the Golden Globe Award
for Best Actress - Motion Picture Musical or Comedy. Wilder commented that the
film was the biggest success he had ever been associated with. He discussed
the problems he encountered during filming, saying "Marilyn was so difficult
because she was totally unpredictable. I never knew what kind of day we were
going to have... would she be cooperative or obstructive?" He had little
patience with her method acting technique and said that instead of going to the
Actors Studio "she should have gone to a train-engineer's school ... to learn
something about arriving on schedule." Wilder had become ill during filming,
and explained, "We were in mid-flight“ and there was a nut on the plane."
In hindsight, he discussed Monroe's "certain indefinable magic" and "absolute
genius as a comic actress."
Let's Make Love
By this time, Monroe had only completed one film, Bus Stop, under her four
picture contract with 20th Century Fox. She agreed to appear in Let's Make Love,
which was to be directed by George Cukor, but she was not satisfied with the
script, and Arthur Miller rewrote it. Gregory Peck was originally cast in
the male lead role, but he refused the role after Miller's rewrite; Cary Grant,
Charlton Heston, Yul Brynner and Rock Hudson also refused the role before it was
offered to Yves Montand. Monroe and Miller befriended Montand and his wife,
actress Simone Signoret, and filming progressed well until Miller was required
to travel to Europe on business. Monroe began to leave the film set early and on
several occasions failed to attend, but her attitude improved after Montand
confronted her. Signoret returned to Europe to make a film, and Monroe and
Montand began a brief affair that ended when Montand refused to leave
Signoret. The film was not a critical or commercial success.
Monroe's health deteriorated during this period, and she began to see a Los
Angeles psychiatrist, Dr. Ralph Greenson. He later recalled that during this
time she frequently complained of insomnia, and told Greenson that she visited
several medical doctors to obtain what Greenson considered an excessive variety
of drugs. He concluded that she was progressing to the point of addiction, but
also noted that she could give up the drugs for extended periods without
suffering any withdrawal symptoms. According to Greenson, the marriage
between Miller and Monroe was strained; he said that Miller appeared to
genuinely care for Monroe and was willing to help her, but that Monroe rebuffed
while also expressing resentment towards him for not doing more to help
her. Greenson stated that his main objective at the time was to enforce a
drastic reduction in Monroe's drug intake.
Monroe in her final completed film, The Misfits (1961)In 1956 Arthur Miller had
lived briefly in Nevada and wrote a short story about some of the local people
he had become acquainted with, a divorced woman and some aging cowboys. By 1960
he had developed the short story into a screenplay, and envisaged it as
containing a suitable role for Monroe. It became her last completed film, The
Misfits, directed by John Huston and costarring Clark Gable, Montgomery Clift,
Eli Wallach and Thelma Ritter. Shooting commenced in July 1960, with most taking
place in the hot Northern Nevada desert. Monroe was frequently ill and
unable to perform, and away from the influence of Dr. Greenson, she had resumed
her consumption of sleeping pills and alcohol. A visitor to the set, Susan
Strasberg, later described Monroe as "mortally injured in some way," and in
August, Monroe was rushed to Los Angeles where she was hospitalized for ten
days. Newspapers reported that she had been near death, although the nature of
her illness was not disclosed. Louella Parsons wrote in her newspaper
column that Monroe was "a very sick girl, much sicker than at first believed,"
and disclosed that she was being treated by a psychiatrist.
Monroe returned to Nevada and completed the film, but she became hostile towards
Arthur Miller, and public arguments were reported by the press. Making the
film had proved to be an arduous experience for the actors; in addition to
Monroe's distress, Montgomery Clift had frequently been unable to perform due to
illness, and by the final day of shooting, Thelma Ritter was in hospital
suffering from exhaustion. Gable, commenting that he felt unwell, left the set
without attending the wrap party. Monroe and Miller returned to New York on
Within ten days Monroe had announced her separation from Miller, and Gable had
died from a heart attack. Gable's widow, Kay, commented to Louella Parsons
that it had been the "eternal waiting" on the set of The Misfits that had
contributed to his death, though she did not name Monroe. When reporters asked
Monroe if she felt guilty about Gable's death, she refused to answer, but
the journalist Sidney Skolsky recalled that privately she expressed regret for
her poor treatment of Gable during filming and described her as being in "a dark
pit of despair." Monroe later attended the christening of the Gables' son,
at the invitation of Kay Gable.
The Misfits received mediocre reviews, and was not a commercial success, though
some praised the performances of Monroe and Gable. Huston later commented
that Monroe's performance was not acting in the true sense, and that she had
drawn from her own experiences to show herself, rather than a character. "She
had no techniques. It was all the truth. It was only Marilyn."
During the following months, Monroe's dependence on alcohol and prescription
medications began to take a toll on her health, and friends such as Susan
Strasberg later spoke of her illness. Her divorce from Arthur Miller was
finalized in January 1961, with Monroe citing "incompatibility of
character," and in February she voluntarily entered the Payne Whitney
Psychiatric Clinic. Monroe later described the experience as a "nightmare".
She was able to phone Joe DiMaggio from the clinic, and he immediately traveled
from Florida to New York to facilitate her transfer to the Columbia Presbyterian
Medical Center. She remained there for three weeks. Illness prevented her from
working for the remainder of the year; she underwent surgery to correct a
blockage in her Fallopian tubes in May, and the following month underwent gall
bladder surgery. She returned to California and lived in a rented apartment
as she convalesced.
Something's Got to Give
In 1962 Monroe began filming Something's Got to Give, which was to be the third
film of her four-film contract with 20th Century Fox. It was to be directed by
George Cukor, and co-starred Dean Martin and Cyd Charisse. She was ill with a
virus as filming commenced, and suffered from high temperatures and recurrent
sinusitis. On one occasion she refused to perform with Martin as he had a cold,
and the producer Henry Weinstein recalled seeing her on several occasions being
physically ill as she prepared to film her scenes, and attributed it to her
dread of performing. He commented, "Very few people experience terror. We all
experience anxiety, unhappiness, heartbreaks, but that was sheer primal
On May 19, 1962, she attended the birthday celebration of President John F.
Kennedy at Madison Square Garden, at the suggestion of Kennedy's brother-in-law,
actor Peter Lawford. Monroe performed "Happy Birthday" along with a specially
written verse based on Bob Hope's "Thanks for the Memory". Kennedy responded to
her performance with the remark, "Thank you. I can now retire from politics
after having had 'Happy Birthday' sung to me in such a sweet, wholesome
Monroe returned to the set of Something's Got to Give and filmed a sequence in
which she appeared nude in a swimming pool. Commenting that she wanted to "push
Liz Taylor off the magazine covers," she gave permission for several partially
nude photographs to be published by Life. Having only reported for work on
twelve occasions out of a total of 35 days of production, Monroe was
dismissed. The studio 20th Century Fox filed a lawsuit against her for half a
million dollars, and the studio's vice president, Peter Levathes, issued a
statement saying "The star system has gotten way out of hand. We've let the
inmates run the asylum, and they've practically destroyed it." Monroe was
replaced by Lee Remick, and when Dean Martin refused to work with any other
actress, he was also threatened with a lawsuit.
Following her dismissal, Monroe engaged in several high-profile publicity
ventures. She gave an interview to Cosmopolitan and was photographed at Peter
Lawford's beach house sipping champagne and walking on the beach. She next
posed for Bert Stern for Vogue in a series of photographs that included several
nudes. Published after her death, they became known as 'The Last Sitting'.
Richard Meryman interviewed her for Life, in which Monroe reflected upon her
relationship with her fans and her uncertainties in identifying herself as a
"star" and a "sex symbol." She referred to the events surrounding Arthur
Miller's appearance before the House Un-American Activities Committee in 1956,
and her studio's warning that she would be "finished" if she showed public
support for him, and commented, "You have to start all over again. But I believe
you're always as good as your potential. I now live in my work and in a few
relationships with the few people I can really count on. Fame will go by, and,
so long, I've had you fame. If it goes by, I've always known it was fickle. So
at least it's something I experienced, but that's not where I live."
In the final weeks of her life, Monroe engaged in discussions about future film
projects, and firm arrangements were made to continue negotiations. Among
the projects was a biography of Jean Harlow later filmed unsuccessfully with
Carroll Baker. Starring roles in Billy Wilder's Irma La Douce and What a
Way to Go! were also discussed; Shirley MacLaine eventually played the roles in
both films. Kim Novak replaced her in Kiss Me, Stupid, a comedy in which she was
to star opposite Dean Martin. A film version of the Broadway musical, A Tree
Grows In Brooklyn, and an unnamed World War I “themed musical co-starring Gene
Kelly were also discussed, but the projects did not occur. Her dispute with
20th Century Fox was resolved, and her contract renewed into a $1 million
two-picture deal, and filming of Something's Got to Give was scheduled to resume
in early fall 1962. Also on the table was an Italian film offer worth several
million giving her script, director and co-star approval. Allan "Whitey"
Snyder who saw her during the last week of her life, said Monroe was pleased by
the opportunities available to her, and that she "never looked better was
in great spirits."
Death and aftermath
The crypt of Marilyn MonroeOn August 5, 1962, LAPD police sergeant Jack Clemmons
received a call at 4:25 a.m. from Dr. Ralph Greenson, Monroe's psychiatrist,
proclaiming that Monroe was found dead at her home in Brentwood, Los Angeles,
California. She was 36 years old. At the subsequent autopsy, eight
milligram percent of Chloral Hydrate and 4.5 milligram percent of Nembutal were
found in her system, and Dr. Thomas Noguchi of the Los Angeles County
Coroners office recorded cause of death as "acute barbiturate poisoning,"
resulting from a "probable suicide". Many theories, including murder,
circulated about the circumstances of her death and the timeline after the body
was found. Some conspiracy theories involved John and Robert Kennedy, while
other theories suggested CIA or Mafia complicity.
On August 8, 1962, Monroe was interred in a crypt at Corridor of Memories #24,
at the Westwood Village Memorial Park Cemetery in Westwood, Los Angeles. Lee
Strasberg delivered the eulogy. The crypt space immediately to the left of
Monroe's was bought and reserved by Hugh Hefner in 1992.
In August 2009, the crypt space directly above that of Monroe was placed for
auction on eBay. Elsie Poncher plans to exhume her husband and move him to
an adjacent plot. She advertised the crypt, hoping "to make enough money to pay
off the $1.6 million mortgage" on her Beverly Hills mansion. The winning
bid was placed by an anonymous Japanese man for $4.6 million, but the
winning bidder later backed out "because of the paying problem".
Administration of estate
Monroe's Brentwood home (1992)In her will, Monroe left Lee Strasberg her
personal effects, which amounted to just over half of her residuary estate,
expressing her desire that he "distribute among my friends,
colleagues and those to whom I am devoted." Instead, Strasberg stored them
in a warehouse, and willed them to his widow, Anna. Mrs. Strasberg successfully
sued Los Angeles-based Odyssey Auctions in 1994 to prevent the sale of items
consigned by the nephew of Monroe's business manager, Inez Melson. In October
1999, Christie's auctioned the bulk of Monroe's effects, including those
recovered from Melson's nephew, netting US $13,405,785.
Mrs. Strasberg then sued the children of four photographers to determine rights
of publicity, which permits the licensing of images of deceased personages for
commercial purposes. The decision as to whether Monroe was a resident of
California, where she died and where her will was probated, or New York,
which she considered her primary residence, was worth millions.
On 4 May 2007, a New York judge ruled that Monroe's rights of publicity ended at
her death. In October 2007, Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger
signed Senate Bill 771. The legislation was supported by Anna Strasberg
and the Screen Actors Guild, and established that non-family members may
inherit rights of publicity through the residuary clause of the deceased's will,
provided that the person was a resident of California at the time of death.
In March 2008, the United States District Court in Los Angeles ruled that Monroe
was a resident of New York at the time of her death, citing the statement of the
executor of her estate to California tax authorities, and a 1966 sworn affidavit
by her housekeeper. The decision was reaffirmed by the United States
District Court of New York in September 2008. In 2010, Monroe's Brentwood
home was put up for sale by Prudential California Realty.
Monroe had three marriages, first to James Dougherty, then to Joe DiMaggio, and
lastly Arthur Miller. It was also widely rumored that she had had an affair with
President John F. Kennedy, his brother Senator Robert Kennedy, or both. Marlon
Brando, in his autobiography Songs My Mother Taught Me, also claimed that he had
had a relationship with her.
Monroe married James Dougherty on June 19, 1942, at the home of Chester Howell
in Los Angeles. In The Secret Happiness of Marilyn Monroe and To Norma Jeane
with Love, Jimmie, he claimed they were in love, but dreams of stardom lured her
away. In 1953, he wrote a piece called "Marilyn Monroe Was My Wife" for
Photoplay, in which he claimed that she threatened to jump off the Santa Monica
Pier if he left her. In the 2004 documentary Marilyn's Man, Dougherty made three
new claims: that he invented the "Marilyn Monroe" persona; studio executives
forced her to divorce him; and that he was her true love and her "dedicated
friend for life."
Dougherty's actions seem to contradict these claims: he remarried months after
Monroe divorced him; his sister told the December 1952 Modern Screen Magazine
that he left Monroe because she wanted to pursue modeling, after he initially
gave her permission to do so; he confirmed Monroe's version of the beginning of
their relationship in an A&E Network Monroe documentary that his mother had
asked him to marry her so that she would not be returned to an orphanage. On
Monroe's death, August 5, 1962, one of the responding officers who knew Jim
Dougherty phoned him at 4:00 a.m. with the news. Dougherty turned to his wife
and said, "Say a prayer for Norma Jean. She's dead." Most telling, on August 6,
The New York Times reported that, on being informed of her death, Dougherty
replied "I'm sorry" and continued his LAPD patrol. He did not attend Monroe's
Joe DiMaggio and Marilyn Monroe staying at Imperial Hotel in Tokyo on their
honeymoon.In 1951, Joe DiMaggio saw a picture of Monroe with Chicago White Sox
players Joe Dobson and Gus Zernial, but did not ask the man who arranged the
stunt to set up a date until 1952. Monroe wrote in My Story that she did not
want to meet him, fearing a stereotypical jock. They eloped at San Francisco
City Hall on January 14, 1954. During their honeymoon in Japan, she was asked to
visit Korea as part of the USO. She performed ten shows in four days for over
Maury Allen quoted New York Yankees PR man Arthur Richman that Joe told him that
the marriage went wrong from then. On September 14, 1954, Monroe filmed the
famed skirt-blowing scene for The Seven Year Itch in front of New York's
Trans-Lux Theater. Bill Kobrin, then Fox's east coast correspondent, told the
Palm Springs Desert Sun in 1956 that it was Billy Wilder's idea to turn the
shoot into a media circus, and that the couple had a "yelling battle" in the
theater lobby. She filed for divorce on grounds of mental cruelty 274 days
after the wedding.
In February 1961, Monroe was admitted to the Payne Whitney Psychiatric Clinic.
She contacted DiMaggio, who secured her release. She later joined him in
Florida, where he was serving as a batting coach at the New York Yankees'
training camp. Bob Hope jokingly dedicated Best Song nominee The Second Time
Around to them at the 1961 Academy Awards.
According to Allen, on August 1, 1962, DiMaggio“ alarmed by how Monroe had
fallen in with people he considered detrimental to her well-being“ quit his job
with a PX supplier to ask her to remarry him.
After Monroe's death, DiMaggio claimed her body and arranged her funeral. For 20
years, he had a half-dozen red roses delivered to her crypt three times a week.
In 2006, DiMaggio's adopted granddaughters auctioned the bulk of his estate,
which featured two letters Monroe penned to him and a photograph signed "I love
you, Joe, Marilyn."
On June 29, 1956, Monroe married playwright Arthur Miller, whom she first met in
1950, in a civil ceremony in White Plains, New York. City Court Judge Seymour D.
Robinowitz presided over the hushed ceremony in the law office of Sam Slavitt
(the wedding had been kept secret from both the press and the public). Monroe
and Miller wed again two days later in a Jewish ceremony before a small group of
guests. Rabbi Robert E. Goldburg, a Reform rabbi at Congregation Mishkan Israel,
presided over the ceremony. Their nuptials were celebrated at the home of
Miller's literary agent, Kay Brown, in Westchester County, NY. Some 30 friends
and relatives attended the hastily arranged party. Less than two weeks after the
wedding, the Millers flew to London, where they were greeted at Parkside House
by Laurence Olivier and wife Vivien Leigh. Marilyn created chaos among the
normally staid British press. In reflecting on his courtship of Monroe, Miller
wrote, "She was a whirling light to me then, all paradox and enticing mystery,
street-tough one moment, then lifted by a lyrical and poetic sensitivity that
few retain past early adolescence." Nominally raised as a Christian, she
converted to Judaism before marrying Miller. After she
finished shooting The Prince and the Showgirl with Laurence Olivier, the couple
returned to the United States from England and discovered she was pregnant. Tony
Curtis, her co-star from Some Like It Hot, claims he got Marilyn pregnant during
their on-off affair that was rekindled during the filming of Some Like It Hot in
1959, while she was still married to Arthur Miller.
Miller's screenplay for The Misfits, a story about a despairing divorcÃ©e, was
meant to be a Valentine gift for his wife, but by the time filming started in
1960 their marriage was beyond repair. A Mexican divorce was granted on January
24, 1961 in Ciudad Juarez by Francisco Jose Gomez Fraire. On February 17, 1962,
Miller married Inge Morath, one of the Magnum photographers recording the making
of The Misfits.
In January 1964, Miller's play After The Fall opened, featuring a beautiful and
devouring shrew named Maggie. Simone Signoret noted in her autobiography the
morbidity of Miller and Elia Kazan resuming their professional association "over
a casket." In interviews and in his autobiography, Miller insisted that Maggie
was not based on Monroe. However, he never pretended that his last
Broadway-bound work, Finishing the Picture, was not based on the making of The
Misfits. He appeared in the documentary The Century of the Self, lamenting the
psychological work being done on her before her death.
From President Kennedy's birthday gala where Monroe sang "Happy Birthday, Mr.
President".On May 19, 1962, Monroe made her last significant public appearance,
singing "Happy Birthday, Mr. President" at a birthday party for President John
F. Kennedy at Madison Square Garden. The dress that she wore to the event,
specially designed and made for her by Jean Louis, sold at an auction in 1999
for USD $1.26 million.
Rumors have existed since the 1960s that Monroe had affairs with Robert Kennedy
or John Kennedy, or both. Allegations of an affair with President Kennedy
did not make it into the mainstream press until the 1970s, but a pamphlet was
published in 1964, after Monroe's death, entitled The Strange Death of Marilyn
Monroe, by investigator Frank Cappell. It alleged a relationship between Monroe
and Bobby Kennedy. JFK's reputed mistress Judith Exner, in her 1977
autobiography, also wrote about an affair that she said the president and Monroe
Journalist Anthony Summers examines the issue of Monroe's relationships with the
Kennedy brothers at length in two books: his 1993 biography of FBI Director J.
Edgar Hoover, entitled Official and Confidential: The Secret Life of J. Edgar
Hoover, and his 1985 biography of Monroe, entitled Goddess. In the Hoover book,
Summers concludes that Monroe was in love with President Kennedy and wanted to
marry him in the early 1960s; that she called the White House frequently; and
that, when the married President had to break off their affair, Monroe became
even more depressed, and then turned to Robert Kennedy, who may have visited
Monroe in Los Angeles about the time that she died.
Patricia Seaton Lawford, the fourth wife of actor Peter Lawford, also deals with
the Monroe-Kennedy matters in her 1988 biography of Peter Lawford, entitled The
Peter Lawford Story. Lawford's first wife was Patricia Kennedy Lawford, the
sister of John and Robert; Lawford was very close to the Kennedy family for over
a decade, including the time of Monroe's death.
Monroe had a long experience with psychoanalysis. She was in analysis with
Margaret Herz Hohenberg, Anna Freud, Marianne Rie Kris, Ralph S. Greenson (who
found Monroe dead), and Milton Wexler.
1947Dangerous YearsEvieArthur Pierson
1948Scudda Hoo! Scudda Hay!Betty (uncredited)Hugh Herbert
Ladies of the Chorus Peggy MartinPhil Karlson
1949Love Happy Grunion's Client (uncredited)David Miller
1950A Ticket to TomahawkClara (uncredited)Richard Sale
Right CrossDusky Ledoux (uncredited)John Sturges
The FireballPollyTay Garnett
The Asphalt JungleAngela PhinlayJohn Huston
All About EveMiss Claudia CaswellJoseph L. Mankiewicz
1951Love NestRoberta Stevens Joseph M. Newman
Let's Make It LegalJoyce ManneringRichard Sale
Home Town StoryIris Martin Arthur Pierson
As Young as You Feel HarrietHarman Jones
1952O. Henry's Full HouseStreetwalkerHenry Koster
Monkey BusinessLois LaurelHoward Hawks
Clash by Night Peggy Fritz Lang
We're Not Married!Anabel NorrisEdmund Goulding
Don't Bother to Knock Nell ForbesRoy Baker
195 Niagara Rose Loomis Henry Hathaway
Gentlemen Prefer Blondes Lorelei LeeHoward Hawks
How to Marry a Millionaire Pola Debevoise Jean Negulesco
1954 River of No ReturnKay Weston Otto Preminger
There's No Business Like Show BusinessVickyWalter Lang
1955 The Seven Year ItchThe GirlBilly Wilder
1956 Bus Stop Charie Joshua Logan
1957 The Prince and the Showgirl Elsie Marina Laurence Olivier
1959 Some Like It Hot Sugar Kane Kowalczy kBilly Wilder
1960 Let's Make Love Amanda DellGeorge Cukor
1961 The Misfits Roslyn TaberJohn Huston
1962 Something's Got to Give (Unfinished)Ellen Wagstaff ArdenGeorge Cukor
Ladies of the Chorus :
"Every Baby Needs A Da Da Daddy," "Anyone Can See I Love You," "Ladies Of The
Gentlemen Prefer Blondes:
"Two Little Girls From Little Rock," "When Love Goes Wrong," "Bye Bye Baby,"
"Diamonds are Forever ( Diamonds are a Girl's Best Friend)"
River of No Return: "I'm Gonna File My Claim," "One Silver Dollar," "Down In
The Meadow," "River Of No Return"
There's No Business Like Show Business: "Heatwave," "Lazy," "After You Get
What You Want," "A Man Chases a Girl"
Bus Stop: "That Old Black Magic"
Some Like It Hot: "Runnin' Wild," "I Wanna Be Loved By You," "I'm Through With
Let's Make Love: "My Heart Belongs To Daddy," "Specialization," "Let's Make
1962 "Happy Birthday Mr. President"
Awards and nominations
1951 Henrietta Awards: The Best Young Box Office Personality
1952 Photoplay Award: Fastest Rising Star of 1952
1952 Photoplay Award: Special Award
1952 Look American Magazine Achievement Award: Most Promising Female Newcomer
1953 Golden Globe Henrietta Award: World Film Favorite Female.
1953 Sweetheart of The Month (Playboy)
1953 Photoplay Award: Most Popular Female Star
1954 Photoplay Award for Best Actress: for Gentlemen Prefer Blondes and How to
Marry a Millionaire
1956 BAFTA Film Award nomination: Best Foreign Actress for The Seven Year Itch
1956 Golden Globe nomination: Best Motion Picture Actress in Comedy or Musical
for Bus Stop
1958 BAFTA Film Award nomination: Best Foreign Actress for The Prince and the
1958 David di Donatello Award (Italian): Best Foreign Actress for The Prince
and the Showgirl
1959 Crystal Star Award (French): Best Foreign Actress for The Prince and the
1960 Golden Globe, Best Motion Picture Actress in Comedy or Musical for Some
Like It Hot
1962 Golden Globe, World Film Favorite: Female
Star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame 6104 Hollywood Blvd.
1999 she was ranked as the sixth greatest female star of all time by the
American Film Institute in their list AFI's 100 Years... 100 Stars.
Friday, January 20, 2012
Marilyn Monroe Hollywood Actress Biography
Marilyn Monroe Biography